ĝhðem-, ĝhðom-, gen. ĝh(ð)m-es

    ĝhðem-, ĝhðom-, gen. ĝh(ð)m-és
    English meaning: earth
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “Erde, Erdboden”
    Note: It was developed from the zero grade, from where the simple anlaut ĝh- also in lengthened grade spread forms (about O.Ind. anlauts jm-, gm- besides kṣm- compare Johansson Xenia Lideniana 1912, S. 116-126)
    Material: compare to anlaut still Wackernagel O.Ind. Gk. I 129, 241, pp. 109, 209bɣ, III 241 ff., Schwyzer Gk. I 326, 631, 10, Benveniste BAL.-SLAV. 38, 139 ff., Specht Decl. 241. O.Ind. stem kṣam-, nom. sg. kṣǘḥ (= Av. zü̊ ) f. “earth, Erdboden” common O.Ind. ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation, (acc. kṣüm = Av. ząm; loc. kṣámi and *kṣüm, if kṣǘman from this form with postposition *en “in” to define is, compare O.Ind. pári-jman “rings auf the earth”; instr. jmǘ ; gen. jmáḥ, secondary gmáḥ, kṣmáḥ); kṣámya-ḥ “auf the Erde situated, irdisch”; Av. zü̊ , acc. ząm, loc. zǝmē, gen. zǝmō “earth, Erdboden”; Gk. χθών f. “Erdboden” (*χθώμ; thereafter with ν also gen. χθονός, χθόνιος “unterirdisch” etc.), χαμαί originally “zur Erde hin”, then also “auf the Erde” (bis auf die other vowel gradation = O.Pruss. semmai “low” and presumably also = Lat. humī “to bottom”), χαμᾶζε “ to the ground, on the ground “, χαμηλός “low”, χθαμαλός “low” (: Lat. humilis), perhaps νεο- χμός “neu, unerhört (auf the Erde?)”; Phryg. ζεμελω (Thrac. ΢εμέλη) “mother earth” (?), also Phryg. ζέμελεν βάρβαρον ἀνδράποδον Hes. (compare Russ. čelovek “person” and ‘servant”) ; Γδαν Μα “Xθών Μᾶ” kann genuine Phryg. sein (IE ē > Phryg. ü), gd- : z- as O.Ind. kṣüḥ : Av. zü̊ ; common O.Ind. ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation Alb. dhe “earth” (= χθών) ; compare Gk. Δημήτηρ, Dor. Δᾱμά̄τηρ, Thess. Δαμμάτηρ, Eol. Δωμάτηρ; Illyr. Δω-, Δαμ- (Pisani IF. 53, 30, 38) from IE *ĝðhō, respectively Vokat. *gðhom; about Δαμία, epithet the Demeter, s. WH. I 321;
    Note: Clearly Δημήτηρ “mother earth” was shaped according to Illyr. and Alb. phonetic laws [common Alb. ĝh- > d-, dh-] Δημή-τηρ common venetic Illyrian suffix -ter,-tre . Therefore Δημήτηρ is an Illyrian goddess of earth. Lat. humus (from *homos) “earth, Erdboden”, probably Umformung an old consonantstem *ĝhom-; hence also f. as χθών; humilis “low” (: χθαμαλός); in Osc.-Umbr. *homi-teros, -temos as compar. superl. of loc. *homi “under” (: O.Ind. kṣámi) : Osc. hu[n]truis “īnferīs”, huntrus “inferōs”; Umbr. hutra, hontra “īnfrü”, abl. hondomu “īnfimō”; Umbr. hondu “pessumdatō” from *hon(d)-tōd; about Lat. hūmünus see under; O.Ir. dū, gen. don “place” (Pedersen KG. I 89, s. also under to duine; die development from ĝhð to d- stimmte to t from -kÞ- in art “bear” from erkÞos; n instead of m as in χθόνος from the Vorstufe *dōn - from *dōm - from dū verschleppt);
    Note: O.Ir. duine, Welsh dyn, Corn. Bret. den : Illyr. Δημήτηρ, Alb. dhe cognates evolved according to Illyr. and Alb. phonetic laws [common Alb. ĝh- > d-, dh-] suggesting a shared origin of those lang. Lith. žẽ me , Ltv. zeme, O.Pruss. same, semme “earth”, semmai “base, low” (: χαμαί, see above), Ltv. zem “under” (probably Verkũrzung of loc. zemē); Lith. żẽmas, Ltv. zẹms “low”; O.C.S. zemlja “earth”; in addition also O.C.S. zmьja ‘snake” (“auf the Erde kriechend, χθαμαλός”), zmьjь “dragon”. In addition words for “person” as “Irdischer”: Lat. homō, -inis “person”, aLat. hemō (also in nēmō “niemand” from *ne-hemō), acc. hemōnem; to humus probably hūmünus “menschlich”, with unclear vocalism (*hoim- wũrde to oí of O.Ir. pl. doíni “people” stimmen, whether here older diphthong vorläge, but for ein IE *gðhoim- lacks jede Wahrscheinlichkeit; s. also under); Osc.-Umbr. *homōn- (ablaut grade *ĝhom- as humus, compared with Lat. hemōn- or einzeldialektischer umlaut from *hemōn-), Osc. humuns “hominēs”, Umbr. homonus “hominibus”; Goth. guma, O.Ice. gumi, O.E. guma, O.H.G. gomo “person, man, husband”, Ger. in Bräuti-gam (IE *ĝhemon- or *ĝhomon-); Lith. (old) žmuõ (Daukša m. acc. žmūnį ) “person”, nowadays žmogù s, žmõ gus (g-forms as in O.C.S. mǫ-žь) “person”, O.Pruss. smoy (leg. smoa?), other formations O.Pruss. smunents m. “person”, smonenawins ds., and smūni f. “person”, Lith. žmonà f. “wife, woman”, žmó ne s pl. m. “people” (acc. pl. žmó nis dial. from IE ĝhmōnens). Pedersen (KG. I 69, 89, 116, 173) places here also O.Ir. duine, Welsh dyn, Corn. Bret. den “person”, urk. *doni̯o- from *ĝhðomi̯o- = χθόνιος, O.Ind. kṣamya-ḥ; das wäre indeed the einzige evidence for Celt. ni̯ from mi̯; es could transference of n from dem paradigm *dōn “place” (see above) erwogen become. Yet wäre then the pl. O.Ir. doíni, Ir. daoine “humans, people” (echter diphthong) from duine to separate; weit probably wird doíni as *dheu̯eni̯oor *dhou̯eni̯o- and duine etc. as tiefstufiges *dhuni̯o- with Goth. diwans “ perishable “ connected (see *dhu̯en- under dheu- “die”); incredible Borgström NTS. 12, 83 f.;
    Note: common Illyr.-celtic ĝh- > d- phonetic mutation Toch. A śom “Bursche, youngling “, В śaumo, pl. śümna “person” (: Lat. hemōnem); s. Pedersen Tochar. 107 f.; Hitt. te-e-kan (tegan), gen. tagnüs “earth” and Toch. A tkaṃ, gen. tkanis, В keṃ ds. common O.Ind. ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation
    Note: Common Hittite Tochanrian ĝh- > tk- phonetic mutation : common O.Ind. ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation : Illyrian Albanian ĝh- > dh- phonetic mutation : Celtic ĝh- > d- phonetic mutatIon. They derived through metathesis from *ĝ(e)ðhom-, *ĝh(e)ðhom (Pedersen Group. 41 f.), these explained from IE *dh(e)ĝhom (Kretschmer Gl. 20, 66 f.); against it with substantial reasons Beuveniste Mé l . Van Ginneken 193 ff.; a root in *dhegh- places also Specht Decl. 241; I with Benveniste would rather keep away the Hitt. and Toch. forms. Maybe Alb. toka “earth” from Hitt. te-e-kan; Also ki “earth” in Sumer???
    References: WP. I 662 ff., WH. I 654 f., 663 ff., 869, Trautmann 369.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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